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The Spanish Apartment
The “Spanish Apartment” arose 1895 below Archduke Friedrich as the home condominium of the Spanish royal relatives. Lodged right here right until 1918 Frederick’s sister Maria Christine (1858-1929), wife of the died in 1885 Spanish King Alfonso XII, and her in 1886 born son Alfonso XIII. throughout her recurrent stays in Vienna.
Spanish Apartment © AnnA BlaU Furnishings: On long term financial loan from the MAK-Austrian Museum of Applied Arts/Modern day Artwork
Thanks to a war damage, of the when seven chambers comprehending condominium immediately after 1952 only two rooms have been preserved, the Tiny and the Substantial Apartment that are now again outfitted with their unique furnitures of Joseph Danhauser.
www.albertina.at / das_palais / prunkraeume / spanisches_appart …
The architectural record of the Palais
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Image: The oldest photographic check out of the newly made Palais Archduke Albrecht, 1869
“It is my will that the growth of the internal town of Vienna with regard to a ideal connection of the identical with the suburbs as shortly as doable is tackled and at this on Regulirung (regulation) and beautifying of my Home and Imperial Money is taken into account. To this conclude I grant the withdrawal of the ramparts and fortifications of the internal town and the trenches about the identical”.
This decree of Emperor Franz Joseph I, printed on twenty five December 1857 in the Wiener Zeitung, formed the foundation for the most significant the surface area concerning and architecturally most substantial transformation of the Viennese cityscape. Involving quite a few renowned domestic and foreign architects a “master plan” took type, which involved the design of a boulevard in its place of the ramparts in between the internal town and its radially upstream suburbs. In the 50-many years throughout implementation phase, an extraordinary architectural ensemble produced, consisting of imperial and non-public representational properties, public administration and cultural properties, churches and barracks, marking the era below the time period “ring-street type”. Presently in the first yr tithe decided a senior member of the Austrian imperial relatives to enhance the facades of his palace according to the new style ideas, and as a result licensed the aristocratic assert that this also “historicism” mentioned type on the portion of the imperial house was attributed.
Image: The Aged Albertina immediately after 1920
It was the palace of Archduke Albrecht (1817-1895), the Senior of the Habsburg Loved ones Council, who as Industry Marshal held the total command more than the Austro-Hungarian army. The creating was incorporated into the imperial home of the Hofburg intricate, forming the south-west corner and extending eleven meters earlier mentioned street amount on the so-called Augustinerbastei.
The shut proximity of the palace to the imperial home corresponded not only with Emperor Franz Joseph I and Archduke Albert with a shut familial relationship in between the proprietor of the palace and the monarch. Even the previous inhabitants were constantly in shut relationship to the imperial relatives, whether by delivery or marriage. An exception right here again proves the rule: Don Emanuel Teles da Silva Conde Tarouca (1696-1771), for which Maria Theresa in 1744 the palace had created, was just a shut friend and advisor of the monarch. Silva Tarouca underpins the rule with a second exception, since he belonged to the administrative services as Generalhofbaudirektor (typical court architect) and President of the Austrian-Dutch administration, while all other him subsequent owners were maximum rating army.
In the annals of Austrian record, especially people of army record, they both went into as commander of the Imperial Military, or the Austrian, afterwards kk Military. In chronological order, this applies to Duke Carl Alexander of Lorraine, the brother-of-law of Maria Theresa, as Imperial Marshal, her son-in-law Duke Albert of Saxe-Teschen, also field marshal, whos adopted son, Archduke Charles of Austria, the previous imperial field marshal and only Generalissimo of Austria, his son Archduke Albrecht of Austria as Feldmarschalil and army Supreme commander, and most not long ago his nephew Archduke Friedrich of Austria, who held as field marshal from 1914 to 1916 the command of the Austro-Hungarian troops. Inspite of their army career, all five generals conceived by themselves as patrons of the arts and promoted huge sums of cash to create huge collections, the design of wonderful properties and cultural daily life. Charles Alexander of Lorraine promoted as governor of the Austrian Netherlands from 1741 to 1780 the Academy of Wonderful Arts, the Théâtre de Ja Monnaie and the organizations Bourgeois Concert and Concert Noble, he founded the Academie royale et imperial des Sciences et des Lettres, opened the Bibliotheque Royal for the inhabitants and supported artistic skills with substantial scholarships. World fame acquired his porcelain collection, which having said that had to be bought by Emperor Joseph II to fork out off his debts. Duke Albert commenced in 1776 according to the notion of conte Durazzo to established up an encyclopedic collection of prints, which types the core of the entire world-well known “Albertina” these days.
Image : Duke Albert and Archduchess Marie Christine display in relatives cercle the from Italy brought together artwork, 1776. Frederick Henry Füger.
1816 declared to Fideikommiss and as a result in upcoming indivisible, inalienable and inseparable, the collection 1822 passed into the possession of Archduke Carl, who, like his descendants, it broadened. Under him, the collection was released jointly with the sumptuously outfitted palace on the Augustinerbastei in the so-called “Carl Ludwig’schen fideicommissum in 1826, by which the creating and the in it saved collection fused into an indissoluble unity. At this time had from the Palais Tarouca by structural growth or acquisition a veritable Residenz palace developed. Duke Albert of Saxe-Teschen was first in 1800 the 3rd ground of the adjacent Augustinian convent wing adapted to house his collection and he had immediately after 1802 by his Belgian architect Louis de Montoyer at the suburban aspect created a wonderful extension, called the wing of staterooms, it was outfitted in the type of Louis XVI. Only two many years afterwards, Archduke Carl the complete palace newly established up. In accordance to scetches of the architect Joseph Kornhäusel the 1822-1825 retreaded premises presented by themselves in the Empire type. The interior of the palace testified from now in an extraordinary way the substantial rank and the notable position of its proprietor. Under Archduke Albrecht the outer physical appearance also really should fulfill the specifications. He had the facade of the palace in the type of historicism orchestrated and extra to the Palais entrance versus the suburbs an offshore covered access. Inside, he restricted himself, apart from the redesign of the Rococo space in the way of the second Blondel type, to the retention of the paternal stock. Archduke Friedrich’s plans for an growth of the palace were omitted, having said that, since of the outbreak of the 1st World War so that his contribution to the state rooms, especially, consists in the structure of the Spanish condominium, which he in 1895 for his sister, the Queen of Spain Maria Christina, had established up as a long term home.
Photo: The “audience space” immediately after the restoration: Photo: The “balcony space” about 1990
The era of stately representation with handing down their cultural values found its most clear visualization within the palace through the style and features of the staterooms. On one hand, by the use of the finest supplies and the purchase of masterfully produced pieces of gear, such as on the other hand by the long term reuse of more mature gear parts. This time period lasted right until 1919, when Archduke Friedrich was expropriated by the newly founded Republic of Austria. With the republicanization of the collection and the creating first of all concluded the custom that the owner’s name was synonymous with the creating name:
Following Palais Tarouca or tarokkisches house it was called Lorraine Residence, later on Duke Albert Palais and Palais Archduke Carl. Thanks to the new design of an adjacently located administration creating it gained in 1865 the prefix “Upper” and was referred to as Upper Palais Archduke Albrecht and Upper Palais Archduke Frederick. For the state a distinctive reference to the Habsburg previous was undoubtedly politically no longer opportune, which is why was decided to name the creating according to the in it saved collection “Albertina”.
Photo: The “Wedgwood Cabinet” immediately after the restoration: Photo: the “Wedgwood Cabinet” in the Palais Archduke Friedrich, 1905
This name derives from the time period “La Assortment Albertina” which had been utilised by the gallery Inspector Maurice von Thausing in 1870 in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts for the previous graphics collection of Duke Albert. For this purpose, it was the first time since the foundation of the palace that the name of the collection had come to be synonymous with the space shell. Room shell, therefore, since the Republic of Austria Archduke Friedrich had permitted to get together all the movable merchandise from the palace in his Hungarian exile: crystal chandeliers, curtains and carpets as very well as sculptures, vases and clocks. Particularly stressed really should be the beautiful home furnishings, which stems of 3 facilities phases: the Louis XVI furnitures of Duke Albert, which had been produced on the foundation of fraternal relations in between his wife Archduchess Marie Christine and the French Queen Marie Antoinette immediately after 1780 in the French Hofmanufakturen, also the on behalf of Archduke Charles 1822-1825 in the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory by Joseph Danhauser created Empire furnitures and thirdly additions of the identical type of Archduke Friedrich, which this about 1900 at Portois & Ffix as very well as at Friedrich Otto Schmidt had commissioned.
The “swept clear” creating acquired because of to the strained monetary scenario immediately after the 1st World War at first only a makeshift facility. However, since right until 1999 no revision of the emergency gear took put, but in another way made, principally the utilitarianism fully commited office furnitures complementarily had been extra, the gear of the previous state rooms presented by itself at the conclude of the twentieth century as an inhomogeneous administrative mingle-mangle of insignificant parts, in which, having said that, dwelt a specific quaint allure. From the wonderful state rooms had developed depots, storage rooms, a library, a review hall and quite a few officed.
Image: The Albertina Graphic Arts Assortment and the Philipphof immediately after the American bombing of 12 März 1945.
Image: The palace immediately after the demolition of the entrance facade, 1948-52
Worse it strike the outer physical appearance of the palace, since in periods of ongoing anti-Habsburg sentiment immediately after the 2nd World War and impressed by an intolerant destruction will, it arrived by pickaxe to a ministerial erasure of record. In contrast to the graphic collection possessed the richly embellished facades with the conspicuous insignia of the previous proprietor an item-immanent reference to the Habsburg previous and as a result exhibited the monarchial traditions and values of the era of Francis Joseph significantly. As portion of the remedial actions immediately after a bomb damage, in 1948 the aristocratic, by Archduke Albert initiated, historicist facade structuring together with all decorations was cut off, lots of facade figures demolished and the Hapsburg crest emblems plunged to the ground. Considering that in addition the outdated ramp also had been cancelled and the primary entrance of the bastion amount had been moved down to the second basement storey at street amount, ended the presence of the outdated Archduke’s palace immediately after a lot more than 200 many years. At the reopening of the “Albertina Graphic Assortment” in 1952, the previous Hapsburg Palais of splendour presented by itself as one of his id robbed, formally trivial, soulless space shell, whose effective republicanization an outsized and also unproportional eagle earlier mentioned the new primary entrance to the Augustinian road symbolized. The emocratic throw of monuments had wiped out the Hapsburg palace from the city appeareance, whereby in the notion only existed a nondescript, anonymous and ahistorical creating that henceforth served the lodging and presentation of entire world-well known graphic collection of the Albertina. The condition was not improved by the selection to the refurbishment since there were only planned collection unique extensions, but no restoration of the palace.
Image: The palace immediately after the 2nd World War with simplified facades, the rudiment of the Danubiusbrunnens (very well) and the new staircase up to the Augustinerbastei
This paradigm shift corresponded to a blatant reversal of the historic circumstances, as the journey guides and journey publications for kk Home and imperial cash of Vienna devoted by itself principally with the wonderful, aristocratic palace on the Augustinerbastei with the sumptuously equipped out reception rooms and talked about the collection saved there – if at all – only in passing. Only with the repositioning of the Albertina in 2000 below the course of Klaus Albrecht Schröder, the palace was inside the this means and in success of the Fideikommiss of Archduke Charles in 1826 again fulfilled with the substantial regard, from which could end result a more inseparable bond in between the wonderful mansions and the entire world-well known collection. In check out of the being aware of about politically enthusiastic mistakes and omissions of the previous, the facades really should get back again their noble, historicist building, the staterooms get back their glamorous, prestigious physical appearance and culturally exceptional equippment be repurchased. From this presumption, ultimately grew the whole dedication to revise the record of redemption and the return of the stately palace in the public consciousness.
Image: The restored suburb facade of the Palais Albertina suburb
The smoothed palace facades were returned to their unique condition and present by themselves these days – with the exception of the not any longer reconstructed Attica figures – again with the historicist decoration and structure aspects that Archduke Albrecht had offered immediately after the razing of the Augustinerbastei in 1865 in order. The neoclassical interiors, these days called immediately after the previous inhabitants “Habsburg Staterooms”, getting a meticulous and thorough restoration having put at the premises of originality and authenticity, acquired back again their venerable and luxurious physical appearance. From the entire world extensive scattered historic pieces of gear have been acquired back again 70 attributes or could be returned through long term financial loan to its unique site, by which to the visitors is made experiencable again that atmosphere in 1919 the state rooms of the previous Habsburg proprietor Archduke Frederick had owned. The for the first time in eighty many years public obtainable “Habsburg Condition Rooms” at the Palais Albertina allow now again as eloquent testimony to our Habsburg previous and as a exceptional cultural heritage elementary and vital insights into the Austrian cultural record. With the relocation of the primary entrance to the amount of the Augustinerbastei the recollection to this so useful Austrian Cultural Heritage formally and functionally arrived to completion. The vision of the restoration and recovery of the grand palace was a pillar on which the new Albertina really should come up again, the other embody the 4 huge newly created exhibition halls, which enable for the first time in the record of the Albertina, to show the collection all through its encyclopedic breadh below optimal conservation ailments.
Image: The new entrance place of the Albertina
64 meter extensive shed roof. Hans Hollein.
The palace provides by itself now in its physical appearance in the historicist type of the Ringstrassenära, virtually as if almost nothing had happened in the meantime. But will the wheel of time really should not, simply cannot and should not be turned back again, so that the double specifications of the “Albertina Palace” mentioned museum – on the one hand Habsburg grandeur palaces and other contemporary museum for the arts of graphics – really should be symbolized by a contemporary character: The in 2003 by Hans Hollein made significantly into the Albertina sq. cantilevering, exquisite floating traveling roof. 64 meters extensive, it symbolizes in the type of a dynamic wedge the accelerated city spatial connectivity and public access to the palace. It advertises the key alterations in the interior as very well as the big underground extensions of the repositioned “Albertina”.
Artwork historian with study pursuits Record of Architecture, creating industry of the Hapsburgs, Hofburg and Zeremonialwissenschaft (ceremonial sciences). Considering that 1990 he functions in the architecture collection of the Albertina. Considering that 2000 he supervises as director of the newly founded division “Staterooms” the restoration and furnishing of the state rooms and the restoration of the facades and explores the record of the palace and its inhabitants.